Classical and Quantum
The laws of nature, but
the mathematical thoughts of God.
Mathematics, science, history
It all started with a Big Bang
The Barenaked Ladies
This article presents the historical development of classical and quantum physics. It is the layman who, metaphysics and spirituality topics is designed interested in New Age. This is the first of four for general information that serve as a bridge between modern physics and ancient metaphysics can. The second article deals with the appalling behavior of matter at the quantum level, such as the spatial and temporal locality, namely the disappearance of time and space. The third article provides an overview of the holographic model of the universe, and the fourth is string theory and cosmology membrane. If you are overwhelmed by new terms or concepts, then do not panic. You will be tested on. Subsequently
This article begins with the publication of the discovery of gravity and the publication of the Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica in 1686 by Sir Isaac Newton. The Treaty of Newton marked the end of this was called natural philosophy and the beginning of classical physics. He goes on to describe how quantum physics was developed to address the shortcomings of classical physics in terms of the properties of light and the electromagnetic spectrum. The main theoretical differences between classical and quantum physics are presented, including phenomena such as wave-particle duality, quantum jumps, the quantum wave function and non-causal relationships between the particles. The philosophical implications of scientific determinism to be explored. The Standard Model of particle physics and the four forces are also included.
In our everyday experience, we are aware of ourselves, other people, houses, cars, cats and dogs as separate things. We know that all these things are composed of matter, and all things seem to follow in question. Some natural laws of space and time, for example, occupy exactly the same space at the exact same time, and there are no two objects in this world that we live every day, no object can simultaneously be in two places or more. In this world of classical physics describes time goes to a direction from the past to the present and future.
We know that matter is traded or interaction energy (or power). Question appears in three solid liquid and gaseous state. ( Perhaps there is a fourth plasma state, but we do not usually occur) Some things in question are solid, such as trees and buildings, some things are liquids such as water, milk, oil and gas are some things, such as air air and helium in a flask. Applying energy in form of heat to the solid material from a liquid, and the liquid material in the gaseous material. Remove from heat, gaseous material in the liquid material and the liquid material in the solid material.
Shown larger than normal, ordinary, everyday, is that certain topics such as consciousness hylotropic:
Hylotropic in the mode of consciousness, a person feels like a solid physical entity with certain limitations and with limited sensory range. The world seems to be made of various materials and objects clearly Newtonian characteristics: time is linear, the space is three-dimensional and events seem to be dominated by chains of causes and effects. Experience in this way systematically supports some basic assumptions about the world, how the material is solid, the two objects can not occupy the same space, past events are irretrievably lost; future events are not available experiential, more than one location at a time be :
1. Classical physics of Sir Isaac Newton
Physical or natural philosophy as it was once called, is the study of the nature of the material world and its phenomena. It is the science of matter, energy and their interactions. Classical physics is the scientific discipline that studies matter and energy and the natural laws that govern it.
Classical physics was born 5 July 1686.2 With the financial support of the Royal British astronomer Edmond Halley (1656-1742), English astrologer and alchemist Sir Isaac Newton (1643-1727) published his Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica. In his Philosophiæ Newton presented three laws of motion, his work on calculus, and his theory of gravity. Newton based much of his work on the ideas of the Prussian astronomer, astrologer, spiritual and military commander Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543), the Danish astrologer and alchemist Tycho Brahe (1546-1601), the Tuscan astrologer and mathematician Galileo Galilei (1564 - 1642), the German mathematician and astrologer Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) and the French philosopher René Descartes (1596-1650), the father of modern philosophy. The Philosophiæ Newton assured him the presidency of the Royal Society in 1703.
Law of universal gravitation, Newton was born, and later the death of classical physics. According to the law of universal gravitation, Newtonian gravity (F) between two objects (like the sun and the earth, the earth and the sun and an apple or apple) can be determined by the weight (in kg propagation) the first object (M1 ) to the mass (kg) of the second object (m2) and the gravitational acceleration (G), and divided by the square of the distance between the two objects (R) obtained. The formula Newton's gravitational force F = Gm1m2/r2 written. G is a constant called the gravitational constant, Newton's constant and the universal gravitational constant and is committed to the product (6.67428 ± 0.00067) x 10-11m3kg 1-2 equal. G is approximately 6.674 x 10-11N (m / kg)
2. Law of universal gravitation Newton works well in classical physics, which deals with objects that are larger than atoms. Three centuries later, after the discovery and development of quantum physics, particle physics and the standard model is Newton's formula an abrupt development of the physics concept. In particle version of the standard model of quantum physics in the 20th Century developed, etc. the smallest particles of matter, electrons, quarks, particles show no hip-length, no height, no putative deep. In the absence of a length not height or depth of point particles have no gap between them. That is, r (the distance between two particles) is zero. Accordingly, r2 is 0 × 0 = 0. Something (in this case GM1M2) equal to 0 8 (infinity) is divided, that is, F = F or Gm1m2/02 = 8.
Thus, infinitely strong according to the Newtonian gravitational force formula between two particles. If this were true, there would be no particle of matter to separate into individual particles. There would be no space between the particles. What is important to understand that if the equation of classical physics and gravity to the point particle quantum physics, the result is (infinity) is not possible. Gravity, as understood by the classical physics is not compatible with quantum physics. According to classical physics and quantum physics are therefore not compatible. They are not easy in a single theory or model that combines all of physical reality. (Gravity presents other challenges of quantum physics model of classical physics and quantum physics incompatible and creates a comprehensive model or theory to physical universe.)
In addition to the gravity and planetary motion, Newton gave us three laws of motion: the law of inertia, law of acceleration, and the law of reciprocal actions. Newton's law of inertia of a physical body remains as it is at rest, or continue to move at a constant speed while driving, if an external force acts on it in peace. Newton's law of acceleration determined that the resultant force on the body is equal to its mass times acceleration. His law states the mutual actions, that for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.
In addition to his contributions to physics Newton was an astrologer, alchemist and Rosicrucian. His occult or esoteric analysis of the Bible led to predict that the world as we know it will end in 2060 and a new heaven and a new earth there. As already mentioned, Newton, Copernicus, Brahe, Galileo and Kepler were either astrologers, alchemists, or both, respectively. Descartes also said to have been a Rosicrucian, a member of the ancient mystical order of Rosy. Crossing
The heliocentric solar system, electromagnetic fields and the theory of relativity by Einstein
The early Christian church was the Aristotelian / Ptolemaic or geocentric model of the universe, the idea that the sun, moon, planets and stars has rotated around the earth in perfectly circular orbits. The ecclesiastical authorities consider that this model was the only model in the world approved by the Bible. In 1514, Copernicus' heliocentric model of the old earth and the planets around the sun publicly supported the Copernican model.
3. Galileo and Johannes Kepler has increased
In 1609 showed Galileo that he observed in orbit around Jupiter. Moons Galileo's observations also stated the belief that all heavenly bodies around the earth should. This crack in the Aristotle / Ptolemy opened the door to the possibility that other bodies (the Sun, Mercury, etc.) may not be in orbit around the earth model. By replacing the circular elliptical orbits which Copernicus, Kepler was able to predict the movement. Planets with precision in his Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica, Newton analyzed the elliptical motion of the planets and, with his law of universal gravitation, explained the planetary orbits.
More than two hundred years after Newton's work our understanding of the physical universe grew by experimental science of classical physics. Then, in the late 1800s took a dramatic turn classical physics. Building on the work of the English chemist and physicist Michael Faraday (1791-1867), the Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell (1831-1879) expanded the area of ??classical physics with his uniform model electromagnetism.
4. Circular orbits.
5. He showed that electric and magnetic fields through the space in the form of waves in the speed of light. In 1861, the theory that light waves Maxwell gave rise both electric and magnetic fields. Maxwell discovered that the universe of energy fields that interact with each other exists. His research led to the physics of the theory in the field, a sub-domain of classical physics.
German born physicist Albert Einstein (1879-1955) expanded the area of ??classical physics even further with his theory of relativity in 1905 and his general theory of relativity in 1915. With his theory of relativity, Einstein showed that the independence of the speed of light requires actual physical changes in the space-time. His theory of general relativity showed that the mass-energy of matter and dynamics create real curvature in the space-time fabric.
McEvoy and Zarate in the world distilled into six principles of classical physics:
The first principle is that classical physics that the universe as an absolutely huge machine in the context of space and time (or relative time and space with Einstein). The laws of motion in the universe quite comparable. With the laws of motion of a machine no complicated moves that can only be understood by analogy, the machine could be broken down into simpler movements until they appear slightly on the mechanical movement.
The second assumption is that each movement has a cause. The universe can be understood as a chain of causes and effects. This assumption is called the law of cause and effect, or the law of causality.
The third assumption is that when the state of the movement at a known point can be determined at a different time in the future or the past. This principle is known as determinism.
The fourth principle, the properties of light were confirmed fully described by the theory of electromagnetic wave and by Maxwell experiments.
Fifth assumption is that the two physical models are the model of the energy of the particles and the wave model. Models exclude each other, the energy of a particle or a wave must be, but not both.
Sixth, it is measured at a degree of accuracy as possible, the properties of a system such as temperature, velocity or mass.
6. Classical physics and determinism
Classical physics describes the motion of objects in terms of position, mass, force, velocity, and acceleration in the four dimensions of space and time. Classical physics has been successfully used to describe the behavior of solids, liquids and gases. His laws are successfully applied as large as planets, stars and galaxies to objects. Since a detailed description of the individual particles in the universe at any given time, the classical physics to predict the further evolution of the universe with almost complete accuracy. This feature of classical physics known as determinism or casual determinism.
Classical physics is dominated by the principle of complete determinism. Theoretically, all set. Each event is causally determined by a number of events in the past. Future events are entirely predictable because they are causally determined by a combination of physical laws and past and present events. The thoughts, feelings and actions of each individual are caused by internal and external physiological events past.
The determinism of classical physics is also called the theory of horology. According to classical physics, the universe is like a giant clock works as a perfect machine, by the hand of God and continue liquidated on his own. Because of his religious beliefs, Newton was never comfortable with the deterministic nature of the laws of physics, but he was not able to find a suitable alternative.
The determinism of classical physics link the phenomena of consciousness and free will. In classical physics, and consciousness without side effects, namely secondary phenomena that are the result of electrochemical activity in the brain. According to this view there is no value or study consciousness or will, because they have no influence or interact with the physical world. When one is affected the physical universe, the theory of watchmaking in favor of a theory that intangible variables should be abandoned.
The theory of watchmaking suffered a temporary blow by the German physicist Rudolf Julius Emanuel Clausius (1822-1888) and his second law thermodynamics.
7. The second law of thermodynamics, the total entropy of an isolated thermodynamic system tends to increase over time . In other words, without the supply of energy from a given external force to a power system loses. It expires. The second law of thermodynamics states that no external energy source, the wind of the universe and stopwatch.
Entropy is also able to move, in one direction. The basis for the claim of classical physics, this time you take an egg, for example. There is a certain order in the composition of the typical bird egg shell, yolk, etc. If the egg is broken, there is a loss of order, in the structure of the egg. Back from egg to pre-broken form is impossible according to classical physics and the second law of thermodynamics. Therefore, it is impossible to return to the time of return.
Determinism and the theory of watchmaking suffered their biggest blow with the frightening behavior of atoms and subatomic particles. Although classical physics is useful for predicting the behavior of matter and energy can not be predicted. On the macroscopic level of our everyday level of reality, the laws of classical physics behavior of matter and energy at the atomic and subatomic scale This outrageous behavior at the atomic and subatomic scale, led to the development of quantum physics.
Of classical physics into the mysterious world of quantum
At the level of ordinary consciousness of everyday life ourselves, others and the physical world know through our senses, sight, hearing, touch, taste and smell. Some of us are born with finely tuned to one or more of these does not make sense, some of us are born with a strong emphasis on one or more of these senses, and some appear with one or more of these senses that the phenomena of the largest sensory or extra- sensory perception arises.
Everything in our everyday world of individual objects is made up of atoms. Atoms are composed of electrons, protons, quarks and other subatomic particles composed. Foreign body, including your own physical body, this ultra-microscopic particles composed. Everything in the real world or macro exists in the world of atoms and subatomic particles. The world of atoms and subatomic particles, the quantum world, where matter and energy no longer obey the rules of classical physics.
Quantum physics is a specialized branch of physics that deals with matter and energy, as it exists on the scale of atoms and subatomic particles. Quantum physics was born 14 December 1900, when the German physicist Max Planck (1858-1947) published his work on the quantum nature of light. At the time, no one believed that his conclusions were the beginning of a new, comprehensive scientific model for understanding reality.
In the following century, discoveries in classical and quantum physics. Since there is no scientific discipline stands alone, completely independent of all others, advances in classical and quantum physics have mutually influence each other. Sometimes a physicist works in classical and quantum physics. For example, in 1905, Einstein published his theory of relativity article on a topic relevant to classical physics. In the same year he published a paper on the photoelectric effect, a phenomenon in quantum physics effect.
Classical physics takes a materialistic worldview and describes the reality of as consisting of "a fixed and passive space with localized material particles whose movement in time of deterministic mathematical laws". Conscience, thought and mental phenomena are.
8. As a mere side effect of matter.
9. " Nothing more than the complex functions of the brain is one governed by physical laws seen. "10 But the quantum level, the deterministic laws of classical physics no longer apply and awareness is the main actor.
Electromagnetic spectrum by James Clerk Maxwell
Most of what we call energy popularly often a part of the electromagnetic spectrum. The electromagnetic spectrum consists of different types or forms of energy such as visible light, infrared, ultraviolet, radio and TV waves, microwaves, X-rays and radiation (Figure 53) Gamma. As already mentioned, James Clerk Maxwell in 1861 found that the electric and magnetic fields to move through the space in the form of waves, and at a constant speed of light. He believed that the energy of the electromagnetic spectrum, the waves of different frequencies travel through space and spread and radiate to move as they travel.
The energy spectrum of electromagnetic waves of different frequencies mobile. The higher the frequency, the more energy it contains. In addition to the frequency (measured in cycles per second or Hz) the energy of the electromagnetic spectrum at wavelengths to be measured (M), and the energy (electron volts).
The waves or vibrations of the electromagnetic spectrum penetrate the space and matter. If the electromagnetic waves of the patient to pass through it to the addition or increase in the energy of the material of the sub-atomic particles, whereby the displacement of the sub-atomic particles, and the movement of atoms from the material, wherein an object. For example, when an object is applied in a heated part of the body, characterized in that the radiating part of the body heat, so that the energy of the atoms of the specific body part. The end result is that the body to warm to the touch.
If electromagnetic waves to a large amount of energy for the body, the movement of the sub-atomic particles, and the particles escape of atoms which atoms may be combined with other types of atoms. The end result is that the body is burned or destroyed.
In addition, electromagnetic waves, we are surrounded by waves or vibrations in the first place by dust carried out. Explosions, earthquakes, and animal burrows cause solids vibrate. Throw a stone into a pond creates ripples in the water. The air (a gas mixture) transmits sound waves, such as the sounds of human speech.
As human animals must be identified. We specialize meaning that some beaches or wave frequencies recognize our eyes, which we call visible light. Our ears pick a certain range of sound waves in the air. We have a variety of receptors, solid objects, such as waves and the orbital period of escalators and movements of the earth during an earthquake to capture.
There are many frequencies in which the receptors of the body, such as lack of radio waves, microwaves, ultraviolet light, X-rays and gamma rays to name a few. Just because we does not not feel these frequencies that these rays do not affect us. Such excessive radiation can cause burns, sickness and death.
We are surrounded and permeated by a plurality of waves. The waves are everywhere and they intersect or collide continuously. Waves of similar frequencies, amplitudes, and can be combined to produce new wave amplitudes and frequencies. Waves of opposite amplitudes cancel each other. Regardless of the results when the waves of two or more sources, they interfere with each other are overlapped. The resulting new model, an interference pattern will be considered.
Max Planck Quantum Physics
Quantum Physics is the classic physics born to try questions about atoms and subatomic particles that classical physics could not handle to answer satisfactory answer. In other words, the laws of classical physics predicted to achieve the experiments with atoms and subatomic particles to specific results. However, experience has proven otherwise. Quantum physics is what to do. The amount of knowledge that has become this strange result of all intellectual efforts feeling
Is for example, according to classical physics heated in a black body, energy must radiate at different wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum to heat, microwaves, light from light, ultraviolet, X-rays, and cosmic radiation. A black body is something that normally absorbs all wavelengths of visible light, the problems that a black body, so that no visible light and therefore appear black to us. A piece of coal or sealed box could be a good example of a black body.
When coal heated, predicts that classical physics output. All wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum when we next to a fi re, which put the burning of coal, we feel the heat and see the coal turn a red-orange. Classical physics, in general, and in particular the theory of electromagnetic waves, which predicts the energy emitted by the black body, the form of light waves with different frequencies to the change in the energy of a black body is continuously increased or decreased. However, Planck introduced that changes in light waves were not continuous, that is, it does not run smoothly from one frequency to another.
With the failure of classical physics of the phenomenon of black body can predict understand Planck suggested that light waves are transmitted continuously, etc. to the different wavelengths. Instead, the light of discrete units, which he composed as quanta. Each quantum energy of a certain wavelength. Each quantity of light a certain amount of energy, more energy, the frequency of the waves carried by the higher quantum. Calculated Planck quantum energy of the individual to the formula E = hv, where E is the energy of the quantum is good, the frequency and quantity of h v, called the Planck constant 6.63 x 10-34 Joule-seconds.
In fact, it was Planck suggests that, instead of continuous wave power of the light in the form of individual packets or particles. Planck quanta with the Latin word, which means that certain discrete set to describe these packages. Light energy
Up to this time, when the continuous wave electromagnetic spectrum frequencies. Light and Planck described any other waves of the electromagnetic spectrum, in the form of particles. Classically, energy or waves or particles, but not both. In 1905 Albert Einstein presented additional evidence for the theory that the light support manifested in the form of particles. When some metals are hit by a beam of light, they emit (release) electrons. This process is called the photoelectric effect. The photoelectric effect was incompatible with the theory of electromagnetic light wave as light waves. Einstein proposed this effect is due to the particle nature of light. Concepts was discovered with the particle size and a numerical constant of Planck, Einstein was able to predict the power to detect changes in the photoelectric effect with precision.
One of the best ways to develop these different interpretations of the light is too bright to you a ball rolling down a slope. This is the classic interpretation of light as a continuous wave. The ball rolls down the slope in a continuous mode, even if the speed changes.
Now imagine a ball bouncing down the stairs. This is the new interpretation of light as discrete particles. Light as a particle or a jump from one level to another energy level.
Particles or photons were later known as photons. We now know that visible light is sometimes as photons and gives the expected properties of the particles of matter. At other times, the light has the characteristics of the waves expected. The duality of light is regarded as the principle of complementarity. Other studies have shown that all forms of energy can be one of two waves or particles.
As it turns out, this wave-particle complementarity principle is not just a feature of the energy, but all matter and force fields to quantum level.
11. In 1924, the proposed French Prince Louis de Broglie (1892-1987), electrons and all forms of matter waves also appear in the right circumstances.
12. "Matter waves" have frequencies, amplitudes and wavelengths, like the waves of energy. However, the wavelengths of matter waves are extremely short, too short for observation in most experimental conditions today. The short wavelength for our understanding of the material as a solid or strong enough to help in the case of liquids and gases. It was later discovered by the British physicist Paul Dirac (1902-1984), that every particle of matter also behaves like a wave. In which the quantum theory of fields was, everyone has their own field strength type of particle that carries this particular force.
13. Quantum mechanics, the theory and physics
Quantum mechanics is the branch of physics that the behavior of atoms and subatomic particles.
14. It describes the nature of atoms and their components, the subatomic particles-electrons, protons and neutrons.
15. Studies Quantum Physics (or quantum mechanics) is defined as the theory of the behavior of matter and energy, especially at the level of atoms and subatomic particles.
16. As the theory of quantum principle Planck and the uncertainty principle developed Heisenberg,
17. A physical theory on the idea of ??quanta ( discrete set) and quantum jumps (based discovered a discontinuous transition) for the first time within the atomic objects.
18. The scaffolding laws of the universe, its functions, such as the uncertainty of the unknown quantum fluctuation, and the wave-particle duality is more visible in the ultra-microscopic level of atoms and subatomic particles.
19. In the late 1920s, physicists largely theoretical ideas of quantum theory had developed an explanation of the observed features of the behavior of subatomic particles. According to quantum theory, the reality at the quantum level do not exist separately or independently of the reality of human observation arises only when it is observed or measured by the human mind. The orthodox interpretation of quantum theory is that it investigates no deeper than the reality of quantum physics level. However, many quantum physicists disagree on the "orthodox" interpretation of quantum physics.
After the physicist David Bohm (1917-1992), the quantum theory has four main functions:
The first feature is the indivisibility of the quantum action. Classic as something of a state (position, etc.) moves physics, there is a continuous series of intermediate stages between the rest position and the final state. But if a quantum particles move from an initial state to a final state, there are no intermediate stages. The movement is referred to as discontinuous. Quantum particles disappear from one place and appear in another immediately. This is considered a quantum leap.
The second feature is the characteristics of the wave-particle duality of quantum particles. Subatomic particles such as electrons, can have different characteristics (eg, particle-like, like a wave, or something in between), demonstrating depending on the environmental context in which they exist and subject. Observation Under certain conditions they behave like waves, while in other cases they behave like particles. But they are still both waves and particles. This paradox is the additional principle above.
The third feature is that the laws of quantum mechanics, statistical, and not unique to accurately determine individual future events. The material properties are described in the form of statistical facility. That is, at the quantum level, a physical location, which is characterized by a quantum wave function. The quantum wave function is not directly related to the actual characteristics of each object, event or process related. Rather, it is the sum of the probability curves. Each curve represents the probability that a given object or process event occurs. Each of these situations are incompatible, that is, a manifest, or can be updated. There is no way to determine who is revealed, there are only probabilities of each possible outcome connected.
The fourth feature of quantum physics is what non-causal relationships considered. Two particles, such as electrons were separated first part of a quantum system, show a special non-local relationship as a non-causal relationship can be described, no matter how far they are from each other (as in the experiment of Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen ). In other words, if two or more quanta of matter are joined together in the time and / or space that is done is indicated by a quantum other particles separated in the particle quantity. According to the theory of relativity nothing moves faster than the speed of light Einstein. However, no matter the distance in the time / space of two or more correlated (related combined) particles, it is a form of direct exchange of information between them. Since these parts are immediately she runs faster than the speed of light. Physicists do not agree on how to share this information occurs.
20. Point particles and the Standard Model
Particle physics is the study of the basic elements of matter and the four fundamental forces. Ironically debuted particles about 400 years before the birth of Christ. The Greek philosopher Democritus (ca. 460 BC v. Chr.-ca. 370) and his student Leucippus proposed that the atoms or Atoma that matter is composed of indivisible units. According to Democritus, atoms were indestructible and constant movement. Atoms are of different shapes, forms, sizes, and occupied and empty space. The core consists of very fine spherical atoms.
Twenty-four hundred years later, the atomic theory was revived when JJ Thomson (1856-1940) discovered the electron in 1897.
21. The proton in 1919 by Ernest Rutherford (1871-1937), the father of nuclear physics discovered. Nuclear physics is the study of the atom and its nucleus, subatomic particles and their interactions. Radioactive decay, fission and fusion are phenomena that fall in nuclear physics.
The neutron was discovered in 1932 James Chadwick (1891-1974). Eleven years earlier (1921) Chadwick and ES Bieler proposed the existence of the strong nuclear force. The first particle accelerator built a 9-inch cyclotron at the University of California at Berkeley in 1931. As the accelerator was more on the line, a pantheon of subatomic particles were discovered or created. The list of elementary and composite continue to grow. Murray Gell-Mann and Kazuhiko Nishijima independently suggested the existence of quarks in 1961.
In 1974, it was the Greek physicist John Iliopoulos The Standard Model of particle physics. The standard model has been developed as new knowledge of quantum mechanics has been made. Offers standard theory with particles of matter and force carrier particles as point particles. Point particles are free length, width or depth. What are the particles on the ground point, most do not. It is not to take into account the gravity and the theory of general relativity, Einstein's theory. The standard theory has been very successful in explaining the experimental data of quantum mechanics. However, the physicists have to turn the theory of general relativity to explain our biggest universe.
22. More than 200 subatomic particles are detected. Most of these composite particles made of two or more elementary particles. Some particles virtual particles for extremely short time. Virtual particles are formed and destroyed in the exchange between the otherwise natural particles.
In addition to ordinary matter, the physical universe contains antimatter. Antimatter is matter that has the same properties as gravity ordinary matter, but an opposite charge and opposite against nuclear energy and spin.
23. Material of charged particles of antimatter is composed of antiparticles made. An anti-particle is a particle having the same mass as the particle in question, but with other "batch-like properties." When a particle and its antiparticle meet, they annihilate energy.
24. Release the four forces - gravity, electromagnetism and the strong and weak nuclear forces
According to physics in general and quantum physics, particularly particles of matter interact with one another through the four fundamental forces of physics and gravity, electromagnetism, the strong nuclear force and the weak nuclear force. A basic or fundamental force interaction is a mechanism to interact with the particles of matter by replacing something together. Something that is one of the fundamental forces.
Gravity is the first fundamental force are determined, but is not yet fully understood. Gravity affects all particles of matter. The laws of gravity, or as they are commonly known in the particles. With respect to the gravity, it is believed that particles gravitons exchange interaction. If it's still not seen his graviton particle accelerators. And, as mentioned above, the laws of gravity as in our world are seen every day not compatible with the symptoms observed at the quantum level. Thus, gravity is still a mystery in terms of quantum physics and the standard model of particle physics.
The people have an awareness and understanding of electricity and magnetism since the dawn of mankind. Maxwell discovered the relationship between electricity and magnetism, it combines the sheer force of electromagnetism. He described the interaction with respect to the shafts and fields. The discovery of the quantum Planck was the first step to understanding how the electromagnetic force is carried by photons. Photon quantum associated particles with light or electromagnetic waves in general radiation.
25. The strong nuclear force (the strong interaction and the strong interaction) is the force that holds quarks together to form protons, neutrons and other composite particles.
26. The strong nuclear force holds protons and neutrons together in the atomic nucleus. The strong nuclear force is carried by gluons. Identified eight different gluons.
The weak force (also called the weak force, and the weak force) is the force which causes the nature of the beta decay in nuclear atoms. In addition, other radiation occur. In other words, the weak force is responsible for radioactivity. Three different particles called as carriers of the weak force weakons-W + W-and Z have been identified
Fermions and bosons
The Standard Model of particle is divided into two groups of matter and force-carrying particles. The particles of matter called fermions.
27. Force-carrying particles (also called as particle messaging) bosons.
28. There are twelve elementary fermions and their twelve antiparticles. The twelve fermions are divided into six leptons and six quarks. Leptons are fermions, such as the electron and the neutrino. Leptons are not affected by the strong nuclear force force.
29. Quarks are particles of matter that are affected by the strong nuclear force. Six types of quarks are identified.
30. The six leptons are divided into three flavors, and quarks are divided into three groups. Together the leptons and quarks are grouped into three generations of families.
The four forces are mediated by force-carrying particles are bosons. The electromagnetic force is formed by photons. The strong nuclear force is carried by gluons. The weak force is carried out by weakons. It is believed that the effect of gravity supported by gravitons.
The Standard Model
The Standard Model predicts the existence of another as the Higgs boson and objects bunk. As mentioned above, a small mass and other is not. For example, photons and weakons have many similarities. You are the messenger particles of electromagnetic and weak nuclear force. Their biggest difference is that the masses. Weakons not have mass and photons. The electroweak theory combines the electromagnetic and weak forces. According to this theory, these two forces were a force when the universe was still very young and there are extreme temperatures and pressures. At this time, the carrier particles of the two forces were symmetrical. In particle physics, symmetry referred to a characteristic of particles or physical systems. If unchanged, when a particle or a physical system undergoes certain changes or modifications other properties or characteristics of the particle or the system can be continued, it is the symmetry.
As the universe expanded and cooled, the symmetry of the electromagnetic and the weak nuclear force, the photon is massless and massive weakons. The assumption is the symmetry of the Higgs mechanism, a phenomenon of the Higgs field was broken. The Higgs field, after the British physicist Peter Higgs goods (Ne. 1929) is presented a non-zero hypothetical empty field is intended to penetrate the room. The Higgs field is created or mediated by Higgs bosons, which have not yet been observed. Putative If the Higgs field exists, then the space is never empty.
In particle physics, the theory of supersymmetry that for every fermions (particles), there is a corresponding boson (a force carrier), and it is a fermion. The corresponding boson for each particle, in both cases is super-particles. The Standard Model predicts the existence of fermions, bosons, her handsome partner and their antiparticles. At this time there is no overlapping elements were observed. The lack of evidence of outstanding partners can say that the current particle accelerators, super-partners are connected with more partners due to the heavy mass of the situation. It is also possible that the theory of supersymmetry correctly.
Hadron and Conceptons
A hadron is a composite of interacting subatomic particles quarks quarks.
31. Because the strong nuclear force, for all hadrons. Hadrons into mesons and baryons divided. Mesons of an even number of quarks. Mesons are in turn divided into two categories according to the types of quarks and anti-quarks they contain divided. Mesons are bosons, hadrons, since they provide the strong force. About 140 species have been observed mesons. Baryons are on the other side, three quarks.
32. Baryons are particles called hadrons and fermionic. Protons and neutrons are common baryons. About 120 species have been observed by baryons. If you're wondering, there are also anti-hadrons, the antimatter equivalent of hadrons. We distinguish antimesons and antibaryons, and so on.
All of these names are part of the esoteric vocabulary particle quantum physicist. It is not important that you understand these concepts, in the same way that a quantum physicist understands. You have an open view of quantum mechanics nature.
33. Spirit and willingness restrictions only viewable daily reality to dissolve itself and exercise the imagination are keeping freely.
34. Quantum physics an understanding of the nature in which there is no radical separation between mind and understanding of the world
35. And if all these names particles do not appeal to you, I invite you to approach the race by Richard Bach security try: 36 Some common positive conceptons are exhilarons, excytons, rhapsodons, jovions. Conceptons negative common include gloomons, tormentons, tribulons, agonons and build. As you can imagine, a better understanding of quantum physics are conceptons are not necessarily less real than the mention of particle physicists.